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Algorithmic advances in program analysis and their applications

By: Pavlogiannis, Andreas.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: IST Austria 2017
Contents:
Acknowledgments Abstract List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations 1 Introduction 2 Preliminaries 3 Semiring Distance Oracles on Low-treewidth Graphs 4 Semiring Distance on RSMs of Constant Treewidth 5 Optimal Dyck Reachability with Applications to Data-dependence and Alias Analysis 6 Quantitative Interprocedural Analysis 7 Semiring Distances on Concurrent Systems of Constant-treewidth Components 8 Quantitative Verification on Constant-treewidth Graphs 9 Data-centric Dynamic PArtial Order Reduction 10 Automated Competitive Analysis in Real-time Scheduling with Graphs and Games Bibliography
Summary: This dissertation focuses on algorithmic aspects of program verification, and presents modeling and complexity advances on several problems related to the static analysis of programs, the stateless model checking of concurrent programs, and the competitive analysis of real-time scheduling algorithms. Our contributions can be broadly grouped into five categories. Our first contribution is a set of new algorithms and data structures for the quantitative and data-flow analysis of programs, based on the graph-theoretic notion of treewidth. It has been observed that the control-flow graphs of typical programs have special structure, and are characterized as graphs of small treewidth. We utilize this structural property to provide faster algorithms for the quantitative and data-flow analysis of recursive and concurrent programs. In most cases we make an algebraic treatment of the considered problem, where several interesting analyses, such as the reachability, shortest path, and certain kind of data-flow analysis problems follow as special cases. We exploit the constant-treewidth property to obtain algorithmic improvements for on-demand versions of the problems, and provide data structures with various tradeoffs between the resources spent in the preprocessing and querying phase. We also improve on the algorithmic complexity of quantitative problems outside the algebraic path framework, namely of the minimum mean-payoff, minimum ratio, and minimum initial credit for energy problems. Our second contribution is a set of algorithms for Dyck reachability with applications to data-dependence analysis and alias analysis. In particular, we develop an optimal algorithm for Dyck reachability on bidirected graphs, which are ubiquitous in context-insensitive, field-sensitive points-to analysis. Additionally, we develop an efficient algorithm for context-sensitive data-dependence analysis via Dyck reachability, where the task is to obtain analysis summaries of library code in the presence of callbacks. Our algorithm preprocesses libraries in almost linear time, after which the contribution of the library in the complexity of the client analysis is (i)~linear in the number of call sites and (ii)~only logarithmic in the size of the whole library, as opposed to linear in the size of the whole library. Finally, we prove that Dyck reachability is Boolean Matrix Multiplication-hard in general, and the hardness also holds for graphs of constant treewidth. This hardness result strongly indicates that there exist no combinatorial algorithms for Dyck reachability with truly subcubic complexity. Our third contribution is the formalization and algorithmic treatment of the Quantitative Interprocedural Analysis framework. In this framework, the transitions of a recursive program are annotated as good, bad or neutral, and receive a weight which measures the magnitude of their respective effect. The Quantitative Interprocedural Analysis problem asks to determine whether there exists an infinite run of the program where the long-run ratio of the bad weights over the good weights is above a given threshold. We illustrate how several quantitative problems related to static analysis of recursive programs can be instantiated in this framework, and present some case studies to this direction. Our fourth contribution is a new dynamic partial-order reduction for the stateless model checking of concurrent programs. Traditional approaches rely on the standard Mazurkiewicz equivalence between traces, by means of partitioning the trace space into equivalence classes, and attempting to explore a few representatives from each class. We present a new dynamic partial-order reduction method called the Data-centric Partial Order Reduction (DC-DPOR). Our algorithm is based on a new equivalence between traces, called the observation equivalence. DC-DPOR explores a coarser partitioning of the trace space than any exploration method based on the standard Mazurkiewicz equivalence. Depending on the program, the new partitioning can be even exponentially coarser. Additionally, DC-DPOR spends only polynomial time in each explored class. Our fifth contribution is the use of automata and game-theoretic verification techniques in the competitive analysis and synthesis of real-time scheduling algorithms for firm-deadline tasks. On the analysis side, we leverage automata on infinite words to compute the competitive ratio of real-time schedulers subject to various environmental constraints. On the synthesis side, we introduce a new instance of two-player mean-payoff partial-information games, and show how the synthesis of an optimal real-time scheduler can be reduced to computing winning strategies in this new type of games.
List(s) this item appears in: IST Austria Thesis 2018
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Thesis

Acknowledgments
Abstract
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Abbreviations
1 Introduction
2 Preliminaries
3 Semiring Distance Oracles on Low-treewidth Graphs
4 Semiring Distance on RSMs of Constant Treewidth
5 Optimal Dyck Reachability with Applications to Data-dependence and Alias Analysis
6 Quantitative Interprocedural Analysis
7 Semiring Distances on Concurrent Systems of Constant-treewidth Components
8 Quantitative Verification on Constant-treewidth Graphs
9 Data-centric Dynamic PArtial Order Reduction
10 Automated Competitive Analysis in Real-time Scheduling with Graphs and Games
Bibliography

This dissertation focuses on algorithmic aspects of program verification, and presents modeling and complexity advances on several problems related to the
static analysis of programs, the stateless model checking of concurrent programs, and the competitive analysis of real-time scheduling algorithms.
Our contributions can be broadly grouped into five categories.

Our first contribution is a set of new algorithms and data structures for the quantitative and data-flow analysis of programs, based on the graph-theoretic notion of treewidth.
It has been observed that the control-flow graphs of typical programs have special structure, and are characterized as graphs of small treewidth.
We utilize this structural property to provide faster algorithms for the quantitative and data-flow analysis of recursive and concurrent programs.
In most cases we make an algebraic treatment of the considered problem,
where several interesting analyses, such as the reachability, shortest path, and certain kind of data-flow analysis problems follow as special cases.
We exploit the constant-treewidth property to obtain algorithmic improvements for on-demand versions of the problems,
and provide data structures with various tradeoffs between the resources spent in the preprocessing and querying phase.
We also improve on the algorithmic complexity of quantitative problems outside the algebraic path framework,
namely of the minimum mean-payoff, minimum ratio, and minimum initial credit for energy problems.


Our second contribution is a set of algorithms for Dyck reachability with applications to data-dependence analysis and alias analysis.
In particular, we develop an optimal algorithm for Dyck reachability on bidirected graphs, which are ubiquitous in context-insensitive, field-sensitive points-to analysis.
Additionally, we develop an efficient algorithm for context-sensitive data-dependence analysis via Dyck reachability,
where the task is to obtain analysis summaries of library code in the presence of callbacks.
Our algorithm preprocesses libraries in almost linear time, after which the contribution of the library in the complexity of the client analysis is (i)~linear in the number of call sites and (ii)~only logarithmic in the size of the whole library, as opposed to linear in the size of the whole library.
Finally, we prove that Dyck reachability is Boolean Matrix Multiplication-hard in general, and the hardness also holds for graphs of constant treewidth.
This hardness result strongly indicates that there exist no combinatorial algorithms for Dyck reachability with truly subcubic complexity.


Our third contribution is the formalization and algorithmic treatment of the Quantitative Interprocedural Analysis framework.
In this framework, the transitions of a recursive program are annotated as good, bad or neutral, and receive a weight which measures
the magnitude of their respective effect.
The Quantitative Interprocedural Analysis problem asks to determine whether there exists an infinite run of the program where the long-run ratio of the bad weights over the good weights is above a given threshold.
We illustrate how several quantitative problems related to static analysis of recursive programs can be instantiated in this framework,
and present some case studies to this direction.


Our fourth contribution is a new dynamic partial-order reduction for the stateless model checking of concurrent programs. Traditional approaches rely on the standard Mazurkiewicz equivalence between traces, by means of partitioning the trace space into equivalence classes, and attempting to explore a few representatives from each class.
We present a new dynamic partial-order reduction method called the Data-centric Partial Order Reduction (DC-DPOR).
Our algorithm is based on a new equivalence between traces, called the observation equivalence.
DC-DPOR explores a coarser partitioning of the trace space than any exploration method based on the standard Mazurkiewicz equivalence.
Depending on the program, the new partitioning can be even exponentially coarser.
Additionally, DC-DPOR spends only polynomial time in each explored class.


Our fifth contribution is the use of automata and game-theoretic verification techniques in the competitive analysis and synthesis of real-time scheduling algorithms for firm-deadline tasks.
On the analysis side, we leverage automata on infinite words to compute the competitive ratio of real-time schedulers subject to various environmental constraints.
On the synthesis side, we introduce a new instance of two-player mean-payoff partial-information games, and show
how the synthesis of an optimal real-time scheduler can be reduced to computing winning strategies in this new type of games.

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