Molecular mechanisms of endomembrane trafficking in Arabidopsis thaliana

By: Vasileva, Mina
Material type: TextTextPublisher: IST Austria 2019Online resources: Click here to access online
Contents:
Abstract
Acknowledgments
List of Figures
List of Abbreviations
1. Introduction to auxin biology and endomembrane trafficking in Arabidopsis thaliana
2. SACSIN mediates adaptation of plant cells to ARF-GEF inhibition
3. The phytohormone strigolactone
4. Endosidin 9 (ES9) and Endosidin 9-17 (ES9-17) are small molecules, inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis
5. General conclusions, discussion and perspectives
6. Appendix
Summary: The development and growth of Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a combination of genetic programing and also by the environmental influences. An important role in these processes play the phytohormones and among them, auxin is crucial as it controls many important functions. It is transported through the whole plant body by creating local and temporal concentration maxima and minima, which have an impact on the cell status, tissue and organ identity. Auxin has the property to undergo a directional and finely regulated cell-to-cell transport, which is enabled by the transport proteins, localized on the plasma membrane. An important role in this process have the PIN auxin efflux proteins, which have an asymmetric/polar subcellular localization and determine the directionality of the auxin transport. During the last years, there were significant advances in understanding how the trafficking molecular machineries function, including studies on molecular interactions, function, subcellular localization and intracellular distribution. However, there is still a lack of detailed characterization on the steps of endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling and degradation. Due to this fact, I focused on the identification of novel trafficking factors and better characterization of the intracellular trafficking pathways. My PhD thesis consists of an introductory chapter, three experimental chapters, a chapter containing general discussion, conclusions and perspectives and also an appendix chapter with published collaborative papers. The first chapter is separated in two different parts: I start by a general introduction to auxin biology and then I introduce the trafficking pathways in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Then, I explain also the phosphorylation-signals for polar targeting and also the roles of the phytohormone strigolactone. The second chapter includes the characterization of bar1/sacsin mutant, which was identified in a forward genetic screen for novel trafficking components in Arabidopsis thaliana, where by the implementation of an EMS-treated pPIN1::PIN1-GFP marker line and by using the established inhibitor of ARF-GEFs, Brefeldin A (BFA) as a tool to study trafficking processes, we identified a novel factor, which is mediating the adaptation of the plant cell to ARF-GEF inhibition. The mutation is in a previously uncharacterized gene, encoding a very big protein that we, based on its homologies, called SACSIN with domains suggesting roles as a molecular chaperon or as a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our physiology and imaging studies revealed that SACSIN is a crucial plant cell component of the adaptation to the ARF-GEF inhibition. The third chapter includes six subchapters, where I focus on the role of the phytohormone strigolactone, which interferes with auxin feedback on PIN internalization. Strigolactone moderates the polar auxin transport by increasing the internalization of the PIN auxin efflux carriers, which reduces the canalization related growth responses. In addition, I also studied the role of phosphorylation in the strigolactone regulation of auxin feedback on PIN internalization. In this chapter I also present my results on the MAX2-dependence of strigolactone-mediated root growth inhibition and I also share my results on the auxin metabolomics profiling after application of GR24. In the fourth chapter I studied the effect of two small molecules ES-9 and ES9-17, which were identified from a collection of small molecules with the property to impair the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the fifth chapter, I discuss all my observations and experimental findings and suggest alternative hypothesis to interpret my results. In the appendix there are three collaborative published projects. In the first, I participated in the characterization of the role of ES9 as a small molecule, which is inhibitor of clathrin- mediated endocytosis in different model organisms. In the second paper, I contributed to the characterization of another small molecule ES9-17, which is a non-protonophoric analog of ES9 and also impairs the clathrin-mediated endocytosis not only in plant cells, but also in mammalian HeLa cells. Last but not least, I also attach another paper, where I tried to establish the grafting method as a technique in our lab to study canalization related processes.
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Thesis

Abstract

Acknowledgments

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

1. Introduction to auxin biology and endomembrane trafficking in Arabidopsis thaliana

2. SACSIN mediates adaptation of plant cells to ARF-GEF inhibition

3. The phytohormone strigolactone

4. Endosidin 9 (ES9) and Endosidin 9-17 (ES9-17) are small molecules, inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis

5. General conclusions, discussion and perspectives

6. Appendix

The development and growth of Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by a combination of genetic programing and also by the environmental influences. An important role in these processes play the phytohormones and among them, auxin is crucial as it controls many important functions. It is transported through the whole plant body by creating local and temporal concentration maxima and minima, which have an impact on the cell status, tissue and organ identity. Auxin has the property to undergo a directional and finely regulated cell-to-cell transport, which is enabled by the transport proteins, localized on the plasma membrane. An important role in this process have the PIN auxin efflux proteins, which have an asymmetric/polar subcellular localization and determine the directionality of the auxin transport. During the last years, there were significant advances in understanding how the trafficking molecular machineries function, including studies on molecular interactions, function, subcellular localization and intracellular distribution. However, there is still a lack of detailed characterization on the steps of endocytosis, exocytosis, endocytic recycling and degradation. Due to this fact, I focused on the identification of novel trafficking factors and better characterization of the intracellular trafficking pathways. My PhD thesis consists of an introductory chapter, three experimental chapters, a chapter containing general discussion, conclusions and perspectives and also an appendix chapter with published collaborative papers. The first chapter is separated in two different parts: I start by a general introduction to auxin biology and then I introduce the trafficking pathways in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Then, I explain also the phosphorylation-signals for polar targeting and also the roles of the phytohormone strigolactone. The second chapter includes the characterization of bar1/sacsin mutant, which was identified in a forward genetic screen for novel trafficking components in Arabidopsis thaliana, where by the implementation of an EMS-treated pPIN1::PIN1-GFP marker line and by using the established inhibitor of ARF-GEFs, Brefeldin A (BFA) as a tool to study trafficking processes, we identified a novel factor, which is mediating the adaptation of the plant cell to ARF-GEF inhibition. The mutation is in a previously uncharacterized gene, encoding a very big protein that we, based on its homologies, called SACSIN with domains suggesting roles as a molecular chaperon or as a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Our physiology and imaging studies revealed that SACSIN is a crucial plant cell component of the adaptation to the ARF-GEF inhibition. The third chapter includes six subchapters, where I focus on the role of the phytohormone strigolactone, which interferes with auxin feedback on PIN internalization. Strigolactone moderates the polar auxin transport by increasing the internalization of the PIN auxin efflux carriers, which reduces the canalization related growth responses. In addition, I also studied the role of phosphorylation in the strigolactone regulation of auxin feedback on PIN internalization. In this chapter I also present my results on the MAX2-dependence of strigolactone-mediated root growth inhibition and I also share my results on the auxin metabolomics profiling after application of GR24. In the fourth chapter I studied the effect of two small molecules ES-9 and ES9-17, which were identified from a collection of small molecules with the property to impair the clathrin-mediated endocytosis. In the fifth chapter, I discuss all my observations and experimental findings and suggest alternative hypothesis to interpret my results. In the appendix there are three collaborative published projects. In the first, I participated in the characterization of the role of ES9 as a small molecule, which is inhibitor of clathrin- mediated endocytosis in different model organisms. In the second paper, I contributed to the characterization of another small molecule ES9-17, which is a non-protonophoric analog of ES9 and also impairs the clathrin-mediated endocytosis not only in plant cells, but also in mammalian HeLa cells. Last but not least, I also attach another paper, where I tried to establish the grafting method as a technique in our lab to study canalization related processes.

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