Fluctuations and localization in mesoscopic electron systems / Martin Janssen.Material type: TextSeries: World Scientific lecture notes in physics ; v. 64.Publication details: Singapore ; River Edge, N.J. : World Scientific, ©2001. Description: 1 online resource (xii, 205 pages) : illustrationsContent type: text Media type: computer Carrier type: online resourceISBN: 9789812798923; 9812798927Other title: Fluctuations and localizationSubject(s): Fluctuations (Physics) | Quantum theory | Mesoscopic phenomena (Physics) | SCIENCE -- Physics -- Condensed Matter | Fluctuations (Physics) | Mesoscopic phenomena (Physics) | Quantum theory | Física do estado sólidoGenre/Form: Electronic book. | Electronic books. Additional physical formats: Print version:: Fluctuations and localization in mesoscopic electron systems.DDC classification: 530.4/1 LOC classification: QC6.4.F58 | J36 2001ebOnline resources: Click here to access online
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Includes bibliographical references (pages 191-198) and index.
Print version record.
Ch. 1. Introduction -- ch. 2. Experimental facts. 2.1. Aharonov-Bohm effect. 2.2. Conductance fluctuations. 2.3. Localization. 2.4. Quantum Hall effects. 2.5. Quantum dots -- ch. 3. Basic theoretical models and tools. 3.1. Relevant scales and observables. 3.2. The independent electron approximation. 3.3. Model Hamiltonian and Green's function. 3.4. Disorder diagrams and field theory. 3.5. Scattering matrix modeling. 3.6. Fokker-Planck equations -- ch. 4. Idealized systems. 4.1. Localized systems. 4.2. Delocalized systems. 4.3. Random matrices and symmetry -- ch. 5. Towards realistic systems. 5.1. Concept of scaling. 5.2. Distributions and typical values. 5.3. Corrections at finite conductances. 5.4. Quasi-one-dimensional systems -- ch. 6. The localization-delocalization transition. 6.1. Finite size scaling. 6.2. Real-space renormalization. 6.3. Multifractality of critical states. 6.4. Point-contact conductance. 6.5. Order parameter and scaling variable.
The quantum phenomena of tunneling and interference show up not only in the microscopic world of atoms and molecules, but also in cold materials of the real world, such as metals and semiconductors. Though not fully macroscopic, such mesoscopic systems contain a huge number of particles, and the holistic nature of quantum mechanics becomes evident already in simple electronic measurements. The measured quantity fluctuates as a function of applied fields in an unpredictable, yet reproducible way. Despite this fingerprint character of fluctuations, their statistical properties are universal, i.e. they are the same for a large class of different mesoscopic systems, having only very few parameters in common. Localization of electrons is a dramatic effect of destructive interference. As a consequence a metal can become an insulator while reaching mesoscopic scales. Based on elementary quantum and statistical physics, this text introduces the theory of mesoscopic electron systems. It focuses on universal characteristics of fluctuations and on the localization mechanism. General concepts and methods are stressed, such as scaling laws for distribution functions. Tools from condensed matter theory are used flexibly. Involved technical details are skipped so as to present a broad overview of the field, including topics like quantum dots, the quantum Hall effect and a number of the most recent developments.