Organization and dynamics of treadmilling filaments in cytoskeletal networks of FtsZ and its crosslinkers

By: Caldas, Paulo
Material type: TextTextPublisher: IST AUSTRIA 2020Online resources: Click here to access online
Contents:
Abstract
Acknowledgments
About the Author
List of Publications
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Movies
List of Abbreviations
1 Introduction
2 Scope of this Work
3 Quantification of the Large-Scale Organization of Cytoskeletal Networks of FtsZ Filaments
4 Analysis of Filament Polymerization Dynamics in Cytoskeletal Filament Networks
5 Behavior of Single Molecules in Cytoskeletal Networks of FtsZ Filaments
6 Material & Methods
7 Discussion
Summary: During bacterial cell division, the tubulin-homolog FtsZ forms a ring-like structure at the center of the cell. This so-called Z-ring acts as a scaffold recruiting several division-related proteins to mid-cell and plays a key role in distributing proteins at the division site, a feature driven by the treadmilling motion of FtsZ filaments around the septum. What regulates the architecture, dynamics and stability of the Z-ring is still poorly understood, but FtsZ-associated proteins (Zaps) are known to play an important role. Advances in fluorescence microscopy and in vitro reconstitution experiments have helped to shed light into some of the dynamic properties of these complex systems, but methods that allow to collect and analyze large quantitative data sets of the underlying polymer dynamics are still missing. Here, using an in vitro reconstitution approach, we studied how different Zaps affect FtsZ filament dynamics and organization into large-scale patterns, giving special emphasis to the role of the well-conserved protein ZapA. For this purpose, we use high-resolution fluorescence microscopy combined with novel image analysis workfows to study pattern organization and polymerization dynamics of active filaments. We quantified the influence of Zaps on FtsZ on three diferent spatial scales: the large-scale organization of the membrane-bound filament network, the underlying polymerization dynamics and the behavior of single molecules. We found that ZapA cooperatively increases the spatial order of the filament network, binds only transiently to FtsZ filaments and has no effect on filament length and treadmilling velocity. Our data provides a model for how FtsZ-associated proteins can increase the precision and stability of the bacterial cell division machinery in a switch-like manner, without compromising filament dynamics. Furthermore, we believe that our automated quantitative methods can be used to analyze a large variety of dynamic cytoskeletal systems, using standard time-lapse movies of homogeneously labeled proteins obtained from experiments in vitro or even inside the living cell.
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Thesis

Abstract

Acknowledgments

About the Author

List of Publications

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Movies

List of Abbreviations

1 Introduction

2 Scope of this Work

3 Quantification of the Large-Scale Organization of Cytoskeletal Networks of FtsZ Filaments

4 Analysis of Filament Polymerization Dynamics in Cytoskeletal Filament Networks

5 Behavior of Single Molecules in Cytoskeletal Networks of FtsZ Filaments

6 Material & Methods

7 Discussion

During bacterial cell division, the tubulin-homolog FtsZ forms a ring-like structure at the center of the cell. This so-called Z-ring acts as a scaffold recruiting several division-related proteins to mid-cell and plays a key role in distributing proteins at the division site, a feature driven by the treadmilling motion of FtsZ filaments around the septum. What regulates the architecture, dynamics and stability of the Z-ring is still poorly understood, but FtsZ-associated proteins (Zaps) are known to play an important role. Advances in fluorescence microscopy and in vitro reconstitution experiments have helped to shed light into some of the dynamic properties of these complex systems, but methods that allow to collect and analyze large quantitative data sets of the underlying polymer dynamics are still missing. Here, using an in vitro reconstitution approach, we studied how different Zaps affect FtsZ filament dynamics and organization into large-scale patterns, giving special emphasis to the role of the well-conserved protein ZapA. For this purpose, we use high-resolution fluorescence microscopy combined with novel image analysis workfows to study pattern organization and polymerization dynamics of active filaments. We quantified the influence of Zaps on FtsZ on three diferent spatial scales: the large-scale organization of the membrane-bound filament network, the underlying polymerization dynamics and the behavior of single molecules. We found that ZapA cooperatively increases the spatial order of the filament network, binds only transiently to FtsZ filaments and has no effect on filament length and treadmilling velocity. Our data provides a model for how FtsZ-associated proteins can increase the precision and stability of the bacterial cell division machinery in a switch-like manner, without compromising filament dynamics. Furthermore, we believe that our automated quantitative methods can be used to analyze a large variety of dynamic cytoskeletal systems, using standard time-lapse movies of homogeneously labeled proteins obtained from experiments in vitro or even inside the living cell.

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